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HomeHistorical BooksThe Historical past Ladies: Roman Honour Killings

The Historical past Ladies: Roman Honour Killings

The ladies of very early Rome had been undoubtedly second-class
residents with no rights to vote or maintain property. They had been identified solely by one
title, that of their father’s in female type. As I discussed in my earlier
publish, The Legend of Tarpeia – A Roman Morality Story, it’s fascinating the Roman
basis tales chronicle the deaths of the matron, Lucretia, and the
virgin, Verginia, as catalysts for vital political upheaval.

The fables of the doomed girls have been handed all the way down to us
via Roman and Greek historians comparable to Livy, Plutarch and Dionysius of
Halicarnassus, nevertheless, it must be famous that these students wrote their accounts
centuries after the occasions described, and with out entry to major sources.
Accordingly, readers ought to acknowledge the exploits of the characters don’t
replicate the precise historical past of that metropolis. Nonetheless, whereas the existence of
these girls is debatable, their legends have been handed down via the ages
as examples of the Roman virtues of chastity, modesty and constancy.

Tarqinio e Lucrezia by Jan Massys ca 1550

In telling their tales, it’s necessary to grasp the
idea of a ‘blood taint’ in Roman customary legal guidelines. A girl was anticipated to be
chaste if she was a maiden, and trustworthy if she was a spouse. A husband or father
was entitled to kill their spouse or daughter if she had an affair. They may
additionally kill them in the event that they deemed a girl’s honour had been sullied no matter
whether or not she was harmless or responsible of the act which will have constituted her
‘corruption’. This lined the spectrum from a woman being found alone with
a person with no chaperone to the fee of a rape. As soon as a girl’s sexual
purity had been compromised her blood grew to become ‘tainted’. A girl was additionally
anticipated to worth her personal honour as will be seen from the story of the rape of

Lucretia was married to the Roman nobleman, Collatinus,
through the reign of the tyrannical Etruscan king, Tarquinius Superbus. When Collatinus
boasted his spouse was extra virtuous than Etruscan wives, the king’s son, Prince Sextus
Tarquinius, visited Lucretia to check this declare. Holding a sword to her throat,
he demanded she sleep with him.  When she refused, he threatened to not
solely kill her but additionally depart the corpse of a unadorned slave beside her in order that
Collatinus (and all Rome) would assume she had dedicated adultery with a
servant.  To keep away from bringing such disgrace upon her husband, the matron
yielded to Sextus. The following day Collatinus found the rape and was ready
to forgive Lucretia for her blood taint. Regardless of his pleas, although, she took
her personal life somewhat than dwell with dishonour.  Her defilement and self-sacrifice
incited the Romans to stand up and rid Rome of their oppressive and wicked
Etruscan rulers. After this, the Romans vowed by no means once more to be ruled by a
monarch and the Republic of Rome was born.

Verginia’s story is equally tragic. She was a pawn whose
demise stirred the lads of Rome to stand up and depose the corrupt authorities of
the Decemvirs, ‘ten males’ elected to rule Rome after King Tarquinius had been expelled.

Verginia was the daughter of a centurion, Lucius Verginius.  The plebeian maiden was identified for her
distinctive magnificence. She caught the attention of the patrician decide, Appius Claudius,
who was one of many Decemvirs. While Verginius was away, Claudius organized for
a shopper to carry a thinly veiled court docket case claiming Verginia was his slave on
the idea he would then hand the woman over for Claudius to make use of.  The actual fact the woman was disadvantaged of her liberty
by a wrongful assertion of slavery outraged the populace because it was clear Claudius
was abusing his energy to allow him to debauch the woman. Though Verginius
returned in time to find the scheme, Claudius dominated Verginia must be
faraway from her father’s home anyway. 
Not wishing his daughter to be subjected to the disgrace of being a wealthy
man’s whore and a slave, the centurion took a butcher’s knife and slew
her.  The outcry that adopted led to the
downfall of the Decemvirs. Verginius himself was not condemned as a assassin,
although, as a result of he had energy of life and demise over his daughter.

The Dying of Verginia by Heinrich Frierich Fuger

The paternalism of those tales jars as a result of we see these
girls solely as victims of the ‘system’ somewhat than lively champions of
insurrection. As such, the ravaged and self-sacrificing Lucretia is just not depicted as
being an instigator of reform in her personal proper by the traditional historians.
Nonetheless, on my studying of Livy’s From the Founding of the Metropolis, I
prefer to interpret Lucretia as exhorting each riot in addition to private
vengeance based mostly on her problem to her father and husband: “He [Sextus] . . . got here
as my enemy disguised as my visitor, and took his pleasure of me. That pleasure
might be my demise—and his, too, if you’re males”. These 4 phrases, “if you’re
males”, are telling. Rape was a capital crime. As such, her father and husband
had the best to lawfully take retribution in opposition to Sextus. Killing a prince of
the Tarquinian royal home, nevertheless, was much more problematic, and required
appreciable braveness. Given no Roman man had been valiant sufficient to insurgent
in opposition to the Etruscan tyrants, Lucretia’s taunt was highly effective and defiant. It was
solely after her stunning suicide the lads of Rome had been lastly
spurred to insurrection. As such I prefer to see her as a girl with a ardour for
justice. And it provides me satisfaction to know her title is probably extra well-known
than the lads who avenged her. The tragic matron has not been forgotten. Her
title lives on in literature, poetry and artwork.

Pictures courtesy Wikimedia Commons

Jan Massys – Tarquino e Lucrezia,  ca 1550

Heinrich Friedrich Fuger – The
Dying of Virginia
ca 1800

Elisabeth Storrs is the creator of the A Story of Historic Rome
saga, and the co-founder of the Historic Novel Society Australasia. She has
additionally written a brief story based mostly on the Lucretia legend which will be obtained
at her web site


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