By Nancy Spannaus
April 23, 2022–One yr earlier than the 250th Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, the nation shall be celebrating the 200th anniversary of the go to by one of many main figures of the American Revolution, the Marquis de Lafayette. Lafayette’s tour of all 24 U.S. states, as a “guest of the nation” in 1824-25, served at the moment to rekindle the nation’s revolutionary spirit, and the organizers of the approaching commemoration hope that this anniversary celebration will do the identical.
Lafayette’s life and tour, and the plans to have fun it, had been the topic of two talks by Dr. Patti Maclay which I’ve attended, each of which had been hosted by the Maryland Sons of the American Revolution (SAR). Dr. Maclay is a member of the steering committee arrange by the American Friends of Lafayette’s (AFL) Farewell Tour Bicentennial Committee and is actively concerned within the preparations.
Who Was Lafayette?
Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roche Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, was a French nobleman, orphaned at a younger age, who in the end turned one of many richest males in France. Yet on the age of 19, he determined to defy King Louis XVI and are available to America to be part of the Revolutionary forces. From that point ahead, he considered himself as an American, in addition to a Frenchman, and devoted his life to pursuing his imaginative and prescient of democracy and freedom.
Dr. Maclay reviewed Lafayette’s document within the Revolution, from his becoming a member of General Washington’s “family” in 1777, to his private strain on the French authorities (the King himself!) for official help for the American Revolutionaries, to his essential function within the profitable Yorktown siege. Upon his return to France, he performed a number one function within the first part of the French Revolution, together with co-authoring the French Declaration of the Rights of Man. Lafayette’s efforts to transplant the American Revolution to France had been thwarted by the Jacobin upsurge, which despatched him to jail for 5 years in Austria. During that interval, his American “family” took in his son, and lobbied efficiently for his launch from jail.
As France turned more and more reactionary, particularly beneath Charles X’s accession in 1824, Lafayette lived in retirement, upset that his beliefs of freedom and democracy had been being buried, and comparatively impoverished by each his contributions to the American Revolution and confiscation of his wealth by the French Revolutionaries. When President Monroe issued the invitation for him to go to America in 1823, he accepted it eagerly.
Lafayette arrived in New York in July 1824 and proceeded to tour the whole nation, 24 states in all. He lined 6000 miles, and stopped in numerous cities, the place each Revolutionary War veterans and the general public at giant thronged to meet and greet him. He visited farms, factories, universities, navy installations, and infrastructure tasks. He attended balls, parades, and public celebrations, and was usually compelled to make his exit at evening, in order to keep away from the crowds that gathered round his carriage. On Dec. 10, 1824, he addressed each Houses of Congress, though individually.
The tour concluded in Washington, D.C. in September of 1825, with a grand ball.
Maclay repeatedly emphasised Lafayette’s dedication to championing the rights of the oppressed, from French Huguenots and Jews in France, to ladies and enslaved African-Americans within the United States. It was one in every of his best disappointments that he couldn’t persuade his father-figure George Washington, and good friend Thomas Jefferson, to act to abolish slavery.
During his tour, Lafayette sought out African-Americans he had labored with through the battle, together with James Armistead Lafayette (an enslaved man who had spied for Lafayette in Cornwallis’ camp and was later freed by him) and Hannah Archer Till, a former slave who, after shopping for her freedom, volunteered to be a paid cook dinner for Washington through the Revolution. Lafayette met with Black veterans and visited the African Free School in New York City, an academic establishment established by the New York Manumission Society, of which Alexander Hamilton was a founding member.
A Lasting Impact
Some of Lafayette’s influence could be seen within the proliferation of bodily websites named after him, from Lafayette, Indiana, to Lafayette Square in Washington, D.C. But his political influence was essential.
The first few months of his tour coincided with the “hot phase” of the 1824 presidential election marketing campaign, which was being waged between 4 candidates: Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, Treasury Secretary William Crawford, Congressman Henry Clay, and Senator Andrew Jackson. At stake on this contest was whether or not the strikes towards the implementation of the American System taken by President Monroe could be pushed ahead, or stopped of their tracks.
Unlike earlier elections, this one took on a way more public, in style character. Eighteen states now had in style elections for president, fairly than counting on their state legislatures. The press was additionally a significant factor, that includes intense scandal-mongering among the many candidates, a lot of which centered on assaults on the “elitist” Adams.
While Lafayette made no direct political endorsements on this acrimonious local weather, it appears simple that his tour benefited John Quincy Adams. Adams accompanied Lafayette throughout his 1824 celebrations in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, gaining a public profile together with his toasts and speeches in help of the nation’s visitor. When the election was in the end thrown into the House of Representatives, Adams overcame a considerable hole to defeat Jackson. While three of the six states which switched their help to him could possibly be attributed to a take care of Clay, three others which had initially gone for Jackson – Illinois, Maryland, and Louisiana – offered Adams with the victory he obtained on the primary poll.
Despite the continuous assaults which bedeviled the Adams administration from its inception, as Andrew Jackson instantly started his virulently anti-Adams 1828 election marketing campaign, Adams’ presidency represented an inestimable profit for the nation. Under Adams, the American System coverage of supporting business, authorities help for infrastructure, and nationwide banking cast forward with spectacularly constructive outcomes.
While President Monroe and his collaborators had been anxious to use Lafayette’s tour to restore the “Spirit of 76” in a fractured political scenario, Lafayette had his personal goals. He wished to observe the progress which his adopted nation had made within the 50 years since its institution and report again to France, bringing the message that America’s democratic methods must be adopted in his house nation.
During his tour there was certainly a lot progress to see, and it was always being touted in toasts at his banquets, and through his travels. Lafayette’s arrival coincided with the Congressional choice to proceed with the development of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, one in every of George Washington’s favourite tasks for uniting the nation. Lafayette additionally was ready to go to upstate New York, the place the Erie Canal was within the closing part of completion.
To assist in his endeavors, he introduced alongside as his secretary Andre-Nicolas Lavasseur, who diligently chronicled his reception by way of the whole 13-month tour. Lavasseur’s account is replete with tales of Lafayette’s emotional reception by Americans, younger and previous, and the Marquis’s equally emotional response. It was printed as a ebook entitled Lafayette in America, 1824 and 1825: Journal of a voyage to the United States, which appeared in French in 1828, and in English one yr later.
An Honorary American
During his return to America in 1784-85, the Marquis and his heirs had been designated “natural-born citizens” of the United States, first by the Maryland State Assembly, and later by Virginia, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. He toured all of the states throughout this journey, to nice acclaim. One of his factors of emphasis was to urge the emancipation of the enslaved, a proposal he made publicly in a speech to the Virginia House of Delegates, amongst different locations.
It was throughout that journey, additionally, that he carried out the invaluable service of offering Irish immigrant Mathew Carey with $400 to start his American Museum journal. That month-to-month publication, which started in January of 1787, printed most of the essential paperwork within the debate in regards to the U.S. Constitution, and was the primary publication to publish that doc in full. Before the journal folded in 1792, Carey printed the complete textual content of Alexander Hamilton’s Report on Manufactures.
Lafayette commonly corresponded together with his shut American pals, particularly father-figure George Washington and his beloved fellow soldier Alexander Hamilton, after he returned to France. He despatched Washington the important thing to the Bastille, after that citadel was stormed in 1789. While Lafayette was imprisoned in Austria, his spouse succeeded in getting the American ambassador James Monroe to safe a passport for Lafayette’s son Georges Washington Lafayette to search safety within the United States.
Given the tensions between France and the United States over the Jay Treaty on the time, nonetheless, President Washington didn’t imagine he might welcome the lad into his family, as Madame Lafayette had requested. Instead, younger Georges, who arrived in 1795, spent his first six months with the Hamilton household in New York City. In February of 1796, he was ready to be part of the Washington household, the place he stayed till his father was launched from jail (thanks to intervention from the United States) in 1798.
Lafayette himself wished to relocate to America at the moment, however each Washington and Alexander Hamilton suggested towards it, believing that, given the continued tensions between the international locations, he could be handled badly. Thus, it was not till 1824 that the Marquis once more got here to America’s shores, this time because the nation’s visitor.
While the Marquis de Lafayette clearly considered himself as an American citizen, legally he was not – till 2002. At that point the Congress of the United States handed a joint decision granting him that honor. Upon being signed by the President, this decision made Lafayette a citizen on August 6, 2002.
Lafayette’s Address to the Nation
One of the highlights of Lafayette’s tour, in my opinion, was his tackle to the House of Representatives on December 10, 1824. His remarks got here in response to a serious tackle by House Speaker Henry Clay, who honored Lafayette’s companies to the United States, and expressed the profound gratitude of the nation. Clay had given a poetic tackle, which included the next:
The useless want has been typically indulged, that Providence would permit the patriot, after dying, to return to his nation, and to ponder the intermediate modifications which had taken place—to view the forests felled, the cities constructed, the mountains levelled, the canals reduce, the highways constructed, the progress of the humanities, the development of studying and the rise in inhabitants—General, your current go to to the United States is a realization of the consoling object of that want You are within the midst of posterity.
Lafayette’s remarks in response appeared to observers to be extemporaneous; they had been extensively acclaimed and printed in newspapers all through the nation. Note that Lafayette spoke in English, having decided to grasp the language from the time he joined the Revolution. Thus, he was ready to communicate straight, from the center, to the American folks. Indeed, he was each a patriot and a world citizen, one who understood higher than many in his time and right this moment, that the nice of any nation lay in aiding and enhancing the advantages of all.
The entirety of his remarks is printed right here:
“My obligations to the United States, sir, far exceed any benefit I’d declare; they date from the time when I’ve had the happiness to be adopted as a younger soldier, a well-liked son of America; they’ve been continued to me throughout virtually a half a century of fixed affection and confidence; and now, sire, thanks to your most gratifying invitation, I discover myself greeted by a collection of welcomes, one hour of which might greater than compensate for the general public exertions and sufferings of an entire life.
The approbation of the American folks, and their representatives, for my conduct, through the vicissitudes of the European revolution, is the very best reward I might obtain. Well might I stand agency and erect, when, of their names, and by you, Mr. Speaker, I’m declared to have, in each occasion, been trustworthy to these American ideas of liberty, equality, and true social order, the devotion to which, because it has been from my earliest youth, so it shall proceed to be to my newest breath.
You have been happy, Mr. Speaker, to allude to the peculiar felicity of my scenario, when, after so lengthy an absence, I’m known as to witness the immense enhancements, the admirable communications, the prodigious creations, of which we discover an instance on this metropolis, whose title itself is a commemorated palladium; in a phrase, all of the grandeur and prosperity of these completely happy United States, who, on the similar time they nobly safe the whole assertion of American independence, replicate, on each a part of the world, the sunshine of a far superior political civilization
What higher pledge could be given, of a persevering nationwide love of liberty, when these blessings are evidently the results of a virtuous resistance to oppression, and establishments based on the rights of man, and the republican ideas of self-government.
No, Mr. Speaker, posterity has not begun for me, since, within the sons of my companions and pals, I discover the identical public emotions I my behalf, which I’ve had the happiness to expertise of their fathers.
Sir, I’ve been allowed, forty years in the past, earlier than a committee of congress of 13 states, to categorical the fond needs of an American coronary heart; on at the present time, I’ve the honour and benefit from the delight, to congratulate the representatives of the Union, so vastly enlarged, on the conclusion of these needs, even past human expectation, and upon the just about infinite prospects we will with certainty anticipate; allow me, Mr. Speaker and gents of the House of Representatives, to be part of to the expression of these sentiment, a tribute of my energetic gratitude, affectionate devotion, and profound respect.”
 For a fuller story on the American Museum, see https://www.statutesandstories.com/blog_html/the-american-museum-the-first-magazine-to-print-the-constitution/
 The transcripts of the speeches come from a useful ebook printed in 1975 by Marian Klamkin, known as The Return of Lafayette, 1824 – 1825, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.