A. Sutherland – AncientPages.com – Zhang Heng (A.D. 78 – 139) was one of many world’s first scientists to suggest that the universe is infinite in area and time.
He was additionally satisfied that the variety of dimensions we can not see with the bare eye is limitless.
A full-size duplicate of the primary seismograph invented by Zhang Heng through the reign of the Eastern Han Dynasty (ab. CE 130), displayed on the open-air exposition held in Warsaw, Poland (June 2008). Credit: Cyborian – Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0
He’s thought of Leonardo da Vinci of the far East. He made vital contributions to the event of astronomy in historic China together with 32 works on science, literature, and philosophy, of which Ling Xian, a abstract of astronomical theories on the time, and the Map of Ling Xian, are astronomical works.
Among the various spectacular innovations of the Chinese scholar Zhang Heng, there’s an instrument for testing wind and earth actions.
In 1703, Jean de Hautefeuille, a French physicist, created the primary seismograph of recent occasions. This machine allowed scientists to measure earthquakes precisely. However, like in so many different circumstances, we should keep in mind that what de Hautefeuille actually invented was solely a rediscovery of a tool that the ancients have been already acquainted with many centuries earlier.
The instrument was invented in 132 A.D. and given the Chinese title Houfeng Didong Yi – or Didong Yi.
The instrument may decide the route of an earthquake, opposite to widespread perception at the moment.
A reproduction of an historic Chinese Seismograph from the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 CE). Credit: Kowloonese – Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
Zhang Heng maintained that earthquakes weren’t indicators of Heaven’s anger however pure disasters.
Over the years, there was scholarly disagreement concerning the actual scientific ideas utilized to the seismograph and the way exactly the instrument initially labored.
Some Western students even steered that the instrument by no means existed.
In 2005, a group of Chinese archeologists, seismologists, and specialists in mechanical engineering from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Museum, and the China Earthquake Administration – introduced that they created a brand new duplicate of the Didong Yi instrument – the world’s first seismograph.
As the scientists mentioned, the duplicate is a “historic step” towards full reconstruction.
“What we’re exhibiting is a scientific machine, not a toy,” mentioned Tian Kai, deputy curator of Henan Museum. “If we put a seismograph that’s unable to maneuver or detect on exhibition,” Tian mentioned, “we won’t solely deceive our viewers but additionally present our apathy and irresponsibility in direction of our nation’s splendid cultural legacy.”
“As a treasure of our Chinese nation, Didong Yi is a horny purpose for reconstruction to scientists across the globe,” Teng mentioned. “If we won’t end the job, will probably be our fault.”
Postage stamp of The Han Dynasty Chinese scientist and statesman Zhang Heng (78-139 AD). Credit: Public Domain
According to the Book of the Later Han (also referred to as History of the Later Han), an official Chinese historic textual content overlaying the historical past of the Han Dynasty from 6 to 189, this historic machine was destroyed and now not exists.
From historic sources, we study that in 138 A.D., the seismograph precisely information the time and route of the earthquake that occurred within the Longxi Shire, about 600 kilometers from Luoyang, China’s capital on the time.
Was the seismograph additionally destroyed throughout this earthquake?
The machine, an urn-like instrument with a central pendulum, was fabricated from refined copper within the type of a vase embellished with eight dragons holding balls of their mouth.
The heads of the dragons identified the eight instructions east, west, north, south, northeast, southeast, northwest, and southwest.
Below the dragons have been eight porcelain frogs positioned across the vessel. All of them have been elevating their heads and opening their mouths reverse the dragons’ mouths.
The inside aspect of the seismograph was ingeniously constructed: when an earthquake occurred, an earth tremor would trigger the pendulum to lose stability and activate a set of levers inside. Then, one of many eight dragons outdoors the urn would launch the bronze ball held in its mouth. The ball would fall into the mouth of the toad and provides off a sound, letting individuals know when and through which route an earthquake had occurred.
Based on the outline in Zhang Heng’s biography, a number of makes an attempt have been made to reconstruct this prehistoric Chinese equipment. Unfortunately, not one of the replicas may detect an earthquake.
Will the instrument be capable to measure earthquakes in the future precisely?
Yet, so far as we all know, the seismograph’s building was fairly primary. More historic knowledge and simulated evaluation will in all probability be wanted to reconstruct this prehistoric piece of know-how.
Written by – A. Sutherland AncientPages.com Staff Writer
Updated on March 6, 2023
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Wang Zhong Qiang, Armillary sphere and seismograph