The trendy area of Anatolia, in Turkey, is effectively often called a hotspot of historical civilizations. Also often called Asia Minor, it was a real crossroad of nice powers within the pre-Christian period. From the Hittites to the Greeks and Romans, the realm at this time is a real treasure trove of historic stays. And the traditional city of Kibyra is only one of the various remnants of that superb age.
Kibyra – the Power That Bordered Ancient Lycia
This historical metropolis was as soon as a formidable energy that rivaled its neighbor, the well-known Lycia . It was also called Cibyra, or Cibyra Magna (Great Kibyra), and its well-preserved remnants can now be discovered close to the trendy Turkish metropolis of Gölhisar. In historical historical past, Anatolia was divided between highly effective areas akin to Lycia, Lydia, Cappadocia, and others. Amongst all of them, the city of Kibyra managed to rise in energy and wrestle itself exterior the boundaries of the province of Lycia.
It grew from humble origins. The historical Greek historian Strabo tells us that the inhabitants of Kibyra had been the descendants of Lydians, settlers who migrated into this area and subdued their neighbors, the Pisidians. Modern archaeology reveals that these settlers established a brand new metropolis some 18 kilometers (11.18 mi) from the current stays of Kibyra. However, after solely a short time, they deserted it and moved to a greater location close by, founding Kibyra correct someday across the third century BC.
This new metropolis had a significantly better place. It was located on hills that neglected broad fertile pastures to the west, in addition to the majestic Akdağ mountains. To the east prolonged the fertile plains of trendy Gölhisar, dominated by the broad stream of Dalaman. In each means, Kibyra offered fantastic vantage factors, and was additionally effectively protected and straightforward to defend. It was a metropolis with nice prospects and even better ambitions – and its rulers had been fast to make the most of that.
The stadium of Kibyra for 10,000 individuals is known for gladiator fights through the Roman Empire. ( Alexey Pelikh /AdobeStock)
A Rising City State
In the daybreak of its historical past, the area of Anatolia was populated by many distinctive Anatolian-speaking peoples. The Luwians had been a majority, and it’s at this time believed that the identify Kibyra comes from their language. However, the realm quickly fell below the Hellenistic cultural affect, and the Greek language was fast to take over. Either means, the use of the identify Kibyra – students agree – had one thing to do with town’s political energy.
From its founding, the brand new metropolis of Kibyra had a multicultural and multilingual character. It was populated by native Luwian audio system, by the settlers from Lydia, in addition to the arrival immigrants from Pisidian cities of Milias and Termessos. Solymian, Greek, Pisidian, and Lydian had been all spoken on this bustling city that was a serious producer of pure-bred horses, leathers, and solid items. It was a city well-known for its expert blacksmiths and their merchandise, in addition to the horses that had been bred on the encircling fertile plains.
What is extra, the historian Strabo tells us that town was shortly strengthened thanks to its highly effective justice system. This signifies that legislation performed a central function within the ruling of the city, permitting it to stay a regional energy and rise to that place very quick.
In time, Kibyra rose in energy politically in addition to economically. So a lot in order that it established a federation, in league with the Lycian cities of Boubon, Oinoanda, and Balbura. This federation was known as a “Tetrapoleis” (Four Cities), and named collectively as Kibyratis. Of the 4 cities, Kibyra was probably the most highly effective, having the ability to muster 30,000 troopers and 2,000 cavalries. Due to this, it had double voting rights, whereas the opposite three cities had a single vote every.
Kibyra Becomes a Victim of Rapidly Changing Times
Alas, no affluent city in Anatolia remained so for very lengthy. After maybe a century of flourishing, the “Tetrapoleis” of Kybriatis was abolished in 84 BC, by the Roman General Lucius Licinius Murena, through the First Mithridatic War . The final tyrant of Kibyra, Moagetes II, was deposed, and the city grew to become an element of the Roman province of Asia. The different three cities had been as soon as extra an element of the Lycian League. Of course, town was not destroyed or endure in any other case, however it definitely misplaced its status and semi-independence. Before the highly effective Romans, no metropolis may stand impartial.
Kibyra historical metropolis in Burdur, Turkey. (JackF/AdobeStock)
In the next many years, town dwindled in energy. In 23 AD, it was struck with a horrible earthquake, which broken its nice buildings very badly. The Emperor Tiberius offered funds for town’s restore, and the grateful residents named their city Caesarea Kibyra from that time on. The city endured within the coming centuries, its character outlined by the approaching and going of nice powers. Alas, in 417 AD, its destiny was sealed by one other devastating earthquake. This time, town was badly devastated, and the financial system collapsed. Many of the buildings – by that point very historical – collapsed and couldn’t be repaired. The residents progressively gave up on previous Kibyra, shifting in waves to the close by metropolis – the modern-day Gölhisar. By the 800s AD, Kibyra was totally deserted, and solely a faint reminiscence of its historical glory remained.
A Glory Unstained by the Passing Centuries
Today, guests to the positioning can marvel within the excavated remnants of historical Kibyra. It possesses some of the perfect preserved Roman and Hellenistic ruins in Anatolia. Amongst these are the Odeon – the well-known music theater which boasts a novel Medusa’s head mosaic – in addition to the Olympic sports activities stadium, which measures 650 ft (198 m) in size and 80 ft (24 m) in width.
The Medusa mosaic is in contrast to another on the planet, and is gorgeous in each regard.
Medusa Mosaic found at Kibyra is a charming piece of artwork. ( Public Domain )
Also found on the web site are quite a few historical temples, Roman baths, buildings, in addition to well-preserved Classical statues.
Kibyra Odeon (Dosseman/ CC BY-SA 4.0 )
In the tip, Kibyra is certainly a testomony to the wealthy historical past of Anatolia, identified additionally as Asia Minor. Always on the crossroads of civilizations, it acquired a novel and wealthy character that’s completely outlined within the wealth of the archaeological stays it has.
Top picture: The charming Medusa Mosaic uncovered within the Odeon at Kibyra. Source: Mehmet Kılınc/ Pexels
By Aleksa Vučković