A. Sutherland – AncientPages.com – Many archeologists agree that cylindrical towers often called ‘chullpas’ (chulpas), which may be considered at Sillustani, Cutimbo, and different locations, are the work of pre-Inca tradition.
Chullpa, funerary urn, Sillustani, Peru. The higher one from the Inca interval, the decrease one from the Tiahuanaco interval. Image credit score: CC BY SA 4.0
Sillustani is a pre-Incan burial floor (of the Colla individuals) on the shores of Lake Umayo, roughly 35 miles from Puno in Peru.
It is a prehistoric place the place a very powerful individuals of the society of the time have been buried, wearing positive clothes, ornaments and completely mummified.
Chullpas, have been completely circular-shaped funeral towers that attain heights as much as twelve meters. The constructing materials was volcanic stone carved by the expert architects of the Collas.
It homes spherical and sq. buildings with inverted cones. They are extensive on the prime and smaller in diameter on the backside, like a funnel. They have solely two small openings, one on the backside and one towards the highest. There are nearly 90 of them and they’re unfold over an space of 150 hectares.
Ruins of a chullpa funerary tower at Sillustani close to Puno, Peru. Image credit score: Kevstan – CC BY-SA 3.0
These openings are too small to have been used as doorways, as solely a toddler might squeeze in by them. At each Cutimbo and Sillustani, pumas and lizards may be carved into the superbly fitted, pillowed granite blocks: the identical symbols may also be seen on specific partitions in Cuzco.
The buildings that could possibly be as much as 12 meters excessive, have been constructed by the Aimara Indians on the altiplano of the Peruvian and Bolivian Andes as graves for the nobles of the tribe.
Northern chullpas are usually stone and spherical, southern ones are sq. and product of sun-dried clay bricks . Many chullpas have been Carvings of lizards typically discovered on the partitions of the chullpas, have been believed to characterize image of life. The creatures are in a position to develop a brand new tail to switch a severed one.
Sillustani chullpas with “ stone ledges”. Image credit score: CC BY 3.0-.
In the 1905 version of American Anthropologist, Adolph F. Bandelier (1840-1914), some of the distinguished historians and anthropologists in New Mexico within the nineteenth century, he mentioned lots of the theories behind the towers and solar circles.
Bandelier prompt that the towers have been in all probability used as grain storage silos, with the small doorways ideally fitted to defending the crop. He additionally states that it was the opinion of most of his contemporaries that the towers have been burial chambers.
In a chullpa, a deceased – member of a noble household – was buried in a crouched place with possessions resembling clothes, jewellery and tools. A chullpa nearly all the time has just one opening to the east in the direction of the rising solar.
Petroglyph, Sillustani, Peru. Stone with carvings on the entrance. Image credit score: CC BY SA 4.0
While the chullpas of the northern Altiplano are round in plan and constructed of stone – largely of ashlar and, so far as constructed within the Inca interval, with out mortar – the towers farther south are rectangular in plan and constructed of adobe. Most the buildings had no decorations: nevertheless, quite a few funerary towers at Sillustani had carved decorations within the type of lizards, whose regrowing tail is taken into account an emblem of renewed life.
Chullpas are ideally situated and may shortly present situations indispensable for mummification, specifically wind and dryness. The buildings have been most likely used as funeral towers by some cultures, together with the Incas, however their unique goal may need differed.
While chullpas usually are not distinctive to Sillustani and are discovered throughout the Altiplano, this web site is taken into account the very best and most preserved instance. The tallest are about 12 meters (39 ft) excessive.
The structure of the Sillustani towers is taken into account extra advanced than typical Incan structure. In distinction with the Inca, who used stones of various shapes, the Colla individuals used brick-like rectangular edges.
Funeral towers from pre-Inca, Aymara-speaking Lupaca tradition. Image credit score: CC0–
The Colla have been later included into the Inca empire and lived of their area for hundreds of years.
They constructed the cylindrical chullpas to bury their the Aristocracy and to offer a connection between life and dying. The lizard image carved on the partitions represents life, as they’ll develop new tails.
It can be vital to notice that the openings within the tombs face east, the place it was believed that the solar was reborn by “Pachamama,” or Mother Earth, every day.
Unfortunately, lots of the tombs have been plundered by grave robbers, whereas others have been left unfinished by the unique builders.
Written by – A. Sutherland – AncientPages.com Senior Staff Writer
Updated on March 13, 2023
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Expand for references
I. Shimada, ‘Living with the Dead within the Andes’